My research is in power systems planning, operation and real-time control, from micro-grid to national grid. Since returning from power industry to academic research, I have expanded my research into two directions:
1. Digitalisation: Power & energy systems digitalisation using cyber-physical power system modelling and digital co-simulation, funded by UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship
2. Electrification: Grid flexibility through aviation & transport electrification, funded by EPSRC New Investigator Award, as well as T-TRIG projects from Department for Transport.
Widely, I investigate net-zero power and energy systems using whole-system approach: developing power systems and energy networks as critical infrastructure systems, integrating transport, renewable energy, energy storage, hydrogen. I address energy security, flexibility and resilience challenges across Energy Theme.
I am a dedicated power system engineer who worked at National Grid UK for eight years to ‘keep the lights on’. I operated the UK largest power transmission systems consisting of 500 power plants, 2,000 electrical substations and 60GW of national electricity demand. My specific industrial expertise including power system modelling and operational tools development for energy balancing and network security, generation dispatch, real-time transmission system control. My industrial expertise is summarised as below:
1. Generation & demand real-time balancing, dispatch, energy scheduling, market & trading, energy management system (EMS).
2. SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system for grid network monitoring and control.
3. Power system tools and algorithms such as state estimation, unit commitment, optimal power flow, inertia estimation for cyber-physical information processing & decision.
4. Control of power system voltage, frequency and stability.
My research is interdisciplinary across power, energy and digital aspects of system engineering covering control, electrical, information and computing. My primary research area is in electrical power systems, with wider research areas: cyber-security, machine learning, digital twins, and their applications in power & energy industry.
Key words: Power Systems, Cyber-Physical Energy Systems, Smart Grid, Power Grid Flexibility, Resilience and Operability, Grid Integration with Transport Electrification
- Power system planning, operation and control (distribution, transmission, generation dispatch, smart metering)
- Cyber-physical whole energy system modelling, co-simulation, real-time digital simulation (Opal-RT)
- Power system with renewable and distributed energy resources (hydrogen, wind, solar, energy storage)
- Transport electrification (EV charging, electric aircraft charging, airport energy systems)
Cyber-physical power system modelling: Funded by the UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship, we are developing new digital technologies that use advanced information and computing methods to better monitor and control the physical power systems. Key methods including cyber-physical system modelling, multiscale modelling and integration of different systems (power, energy, information, transport) and integrate them together for a specific need such as secured real-time control and economic operation. The integrated approach explores the fundamental links across two systems (inter-action, inter-dependency, inter-operability, failure propagation). For example, we are working on matrix based computational method for topology integration as well as hybrid computing methods for the integrated energy, information and transport systems.
Digital co-platform platform: Based on the Sheffield Control and Power Systems Lab, we are developing the simulation platform and operational tools for future power systems. Online and dynamic simulation facilities at the utility scales integrating UK major power utilities data, operation models with advanced cyber-physical techniques, human-machine teaming, AI-assisted real-time control, dispatch and operation of large & complex systems. Cascading failure analysis across multi-layers and inter-layers of energy networks. Major applications to the industrial energy management systems (EMS), aiming to operate low-inertia power systems with up to 100% renewable energy in a secured and economic manner.
Funder: UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) Future Leaders Fellowship (MR/W011360/1)
Project: Digitalisation of Electrical Power and Energy Systems Operation
Period: 2022 – 2026
Value: £1.8 million, PI
Funder: EPSRC New Investigator Award (EP/W028905/1)
Project: Aviation-to-Grid: Grid flexibility through multiscale modelling and integration of power systems with electrified air transport
Period: 2022 – 2025; Value: £481k, PI
Funder: UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Supergen Energy Networks Hub (SENFC1-023)
Project: GRid flexibility by Electrifying Energy Networks for Airport (GREEN Airport)
Period: 2019.9 – 2021.3 Role: Principal Investigator (PI)
Funder: Department for Transport, Technology Research Innovation Grants (T-TRIG2020)
Project: Solar-Hydrogen-Storage Integrated Electric Vehicle Charging Station in Future Cities
Period: 2021.1 – 2021.7
Role: Principal Investigator (PI)
Funder: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Project: Smart Energy Infrastructure for Future Power Networks – Doctoral Training Partnership (DTP)
Period: 2020.9 – 2023.9
Value: £100k + £10k industrial top-up, PI & primary supervisor for this EPSRC funded PhD studentship
Funder: Department for Transport, Technology Research Innovation Grants (T-TRIG2019)
Project: Aircraft to Grid (A2G): Hybrid and Smart Charging for Electric Aircraft
Period: 2019.12 – 2020.7
Role: Principal Investigator (PI)
List of Publications (click to expand)
- Guo Z, Lai CS, Luk P & Zhang X (2023) Techno-economic assessment of wireless charging systems for airport electric shuttle buses. Journal of Energy Storage, 64, 107123-107123.
- Liu S, Cao Y, Ni Q, Xu L, Zhu Y & Zhang X (2023) Towards reservation-based E-mobility service via hybrid of V2V and G2V charging modes. Energy, 268, 126737-126737.
- Wei X, Xiang Y, Li J & Zhang X (2022) Self-Dispatch of Wind-Storage Integrated System: A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 13(3), 1861-1864.
- Hu Y, Bu S, Zhang X, Yung Chung C & Cai H (2022) Connection Between Damping Torque Analysis and Energy Flow Analysis in Damping Performance Evaluation for Electromechanical Oscillations in Power Systems. Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, 10(1), 19-28.
- Guo Z, Zhang J, Zhang R & Zhang X (2022) Aviation-to-Grid Flexibility Through Electric Aircraft Charging. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 18(11), 8149-8159.
- Zhang G, Zhang F, Wang X & Zhang X (2022) Fast Resilience Assessment of Distribution Systems With a Non-Simulation-Based Method. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 37(2), 1088-1099.
- Xiang Y, Zhou L, Huang Y, Zhang X, Liu Y & Liu J (2021) Reactive coordinated optimal operation of distributed wind generation. Energy, 218, 119417-119417.
- Xiang Y, Cai H, Liu J & Zhang X (2021) Techno-economic design of energy systems for airport electrification: A hydrogen-solar-storage integrated microgrid solution. Applied Energy, 283, 116374-116374.
- Zhao P, Gu C, Cao Z, Hu Z, Zhang X, Chen X, Hernando-Gil I & Ding Y (2021) Economic-Effective Multi-Energy Management Considering Voltage Regulation Networked With Energy Hubs. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 36(3), 2503-2515.
- Zhao P, Gu C, Xiang Y, Zhang X, Shen Y & Li S (2021) Reactive Power Optimization in Integrated Electricity and Gas Systems. IEEE Systems Journal, 15(2), 2744-2754.
- Zhang G, Zhang F, Zhang X, Wu Q & Meng K (2020) A multi-disaster-scenario distributionally robust planning model for enhancing the resilience of distribution systems. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 122, 106161-106161.
- Cui Y, Zhu J, Zoras S, Qiao Y & Zhang X (2020) Energy performance and life cycle cost assessments of a photovoltaic/thermal assisted heat pump system. Energy, 206, 118108-118108.
- Zhang G, Zhang F, Zhang X, Wang Z, Meng K & Dong ZY (2020) Mobile Emergency Generator Planning in Resilient Distribution Systems: A Three-Stage Stochastic Model With Nonanticipativity Constraints. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 11(6), 4847-4859.
- Zhang G, Zhang F, Zhang X, Meng K & Dong ZY (2020) Sequential Disaster Recovery Model for Distribution Systems With Co-Optimization of Maintenance and Restoration Crew Dispatch. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 11(6), 4700-4713.
- Zhang G, Zhang F, Meng K, Zhang X & Dong ZY (2020) A Fixed-Point Based Distributed Method for Energy Flow Calculation in Multi-Energy Systems. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 11(4), 2567-2580.
- Xiang Y, Hong J, Yang Z, Wang Y, Huang Y, Zhang X, Chai Y & Yao H (2020) Slope-Based Shape Cluster Method for Smart Metering Load Profiles. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 11(2), 1809-1811.
- Xiang Y, Su Y, Wang Y, Liu J & Zhang X (2020) An Explicit Formula Based Estimation Method for Distribution Network Reliability. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 35(4), 2109-2112.
- Yan X, Gu C, Zhang X & Li F (2020) Robust Optimization-Based Energy Storage Operation for System Congestion Management. IEEE Systems Journal, 14(2), 2694-2702.
- Wang H, Gu C, Zhang X & Li F (2020) Optimal CHP Planning in Integrated Energy Systems Considering Network Charges. IEEE Systems Journal, 14(2), 2684-2693.
- Hu S, Xiang Y, Liu J, Gu C, Zhang X, Tian Y, Liu Z & Xiong J (2019) Agent-Based Coordinated Operation Strategy for Active Distribution Network With Distributed Energy Resources. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 55(4), 3310-3320.
- Xiang Y, Hu S, Liu Y, Zhang X & Liu J (2019) Electric vehicles in smart grid: a survey on charging load modelling. IET Smart Grid, 2(1), 25-33.
- Cai D, Ding L, Zhang X & Terzija V (2019) Wide area inter‐area oscillation control system in a GB electric power system. The Journal of Engineering, 2019(16), 3294-3300.
- HU S, XIANG Y, ZHANG X, LIU J, WANG R & HONG B (2019) Reactive power operability of distributed energy resources for voltage stability of distribution networks. Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, 7(4), 851-861.
- Wang H, Gu C, Zhang X, Li F & Gu L (2018) Identifying the correlation between ambient temperature and gas consumption in a local energy system. CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 4(4), 479-486.
- Zhang X, Bruce A, Rowland S, Terzija V & Bu S (2018) Modeling the development of low current arcs and arc resistance simulation. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 25(6), 2049-2057.
- Yan X, Zhang X, Gu C & Li F (2018) Power to gas: addressing renewable curtailment by converting to hydrogen. Frontiers in Energy, 12(4), 560-568.
- Liu J, Chai Y, Xiang Y, Zhang X, Gou S & Liu Y (2018) Clean energy consumption of power systems towards smart agriculture: roadmap, bottlenecks and technologies. CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 4(3), 273-282.
- Xia SW, Bu SQ, Zhang X, Xu Y, Zhou B & Zhu JB (2018) Model reduction strategy of doubly-fed induction generator-based wind farms for power system small-signal rotor angle stability analysis. Applied Energy, 222, 608-620.
- Gu C, Zhang X, Ma K, Yan J & Song Y (2018) Impact analysis of electricity supply unreliability to interdependent economic sectors by an economic-technical approach. Renewable Energy, 122, 108-117.
- Zhang X, Zhu J, Bu S, Li Q, Terzija VJ & Rowland SM (2018) The Development of Low-Current Surface Arcs Under Clean and Salt-Fog Conditions in Electricity Distribution Networks. IEEE Access, 6, 15835-15843.
- Bu SQ, Zhang X, Zhu JB & Liu X (2018) Comparison analysis on damping mechanisms of power systems with induction generator based wind power generation. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 97, 250-261.
- Zhu J, Hu J, Hung W, Wang C, Zhang X, Bu S, Li Q, Urdal H & Booth CD (2018) Synthetic Inertia Control Strategy for Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine Generators Using Lithium-Ion Supercapacitors. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 33(2), 773-783.
- Bu SQ, Zhang X, Xia SW, Xu Y, Zhou B & Lu X (2017) Reducing model complexity of DFIG-based wind turbines to improve the efficiency of power system stability analysis. Energy Procedia, 142, 971-976.
- Zhang X & Rowland SM (2012) Stability and energy of low current surface discharges on wet surfaces. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 19(6), 2055-2062.
- Zhang X, Rowland SM & Terzija V (2010) Increased energy in stable dry-band arcs due to length compression. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 17(2), 473-480.
- Rowland S, Kopsidas K & Zhang X (2010) Aging of Polyethylene ADSS Sheath by Low Currents. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 25(2), 947-952.
- Wang C, Li J, Hu Y, Zhang X & Varga L () Load Frequency Control Based on Equivalent-input-disturbance Method for Isolated Small Hybrid Power System. DEStech Transactions on Environment, Energy and Earth Sciences(iceee).
- () Chance-constrained optimal dispatch of integrated electricity and natural gas systems considering medium and long-term electricity transactions. CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems.
- Liu J, Li J, Xiang Y, Zhang X & Jiang W () Optimal Sizing of Cascade Hydropower and Distributed Photovoltaic Included Virtual Power Plant Considering Investments and Complementary Benefits in Electricity Markets. Energies, 12(5), 952-952.
- () Modeling agricultural load based on crop evapotranspiration and light integration for economic operation of greenhouse power system. CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems.